Part 23 - AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY AIRPLANES  


§ 23.1457 Cockpit voice recorders.
§ 23.1459 Flight data recorders.
§ 23.1529 Instructions for continued airworthiness.
Subpart A — General
§ 23.1 Applicability.
§ 23.2 Special retroactive requirements.
§ 23.3 Airplane categories.
§ 23.2000 Applicability and definitions.
§ 23.2005 Certification of normal category airplanes.
§ 23.2010 Accepted means of compliance.
Subpart B — Flight
§ 23.21 Proof of compliance.
§ 23.23 Load distribution limits.
§ 23.25 Weight limits.
§ 23.29 Empty weight and corresponding center of gravity.
§ 23.31 Removable ballast.
§ 23.33 Propeller speed and pitch limits.
§ 23.45 General.
§ 23.49 Stalling speed.
§ 23.51 Takeoff speeds.
§ 23.53 Takeoff performance.
§ 23.55 Accelerate-stop distance.
§ 23.57 Takeoff path.
§ 23.59 Takeoff distance and takeoff run.
§ 23.61 Takeoff flight path.
§ 23.63 Climb: General.
§ 23.65 Climb: All engines operating.
§ 23.66 Takeoff climb: One-engine inoperative.
§ 23.67 Climb: One engine inoperative.
§ 23.69 Enroute climb/descent.
§ 23.71 Glide: Single-engine airplanes.
§ 23.73 Reference landing approach speed.
§ 23.75 Landing distance.
§ 23.77 Balked landing.
§ 23.141 General.
§ 23.143 General.
§ 23.145 Longitudinal control.
§ 23.147 Directional and lateral control.
§ 23.149 Minimum control speed.
§ 23.151 Acrobatic maneuvers.
§ 23.153 Control during landings.
§ 23.155 Elevator control force in maneuvers.
§ 23.157 Rate of roll.
§ 23.161 Trim.
§ 23.171 General.
§ 23.173 Static longitudinal stability.
§ 23.175 Demonstration of static longitudinal stability.
§ 23.177 Static directional and lateral stability.
§ 23.181 Dynamic stability.
§ 23.201 Wings level stall.
§ 23.203 Turning flight and accelerated turning stalls.
§ 23.207 Stall warning.
§ 23.221 Spinning.
§ 23.231 Longitudinal stability and control.
§ 23.233 Directional stability and control.
§ 23.235 Operation on unpaved surfaces.
§ 23.237 Operation on water.
§ 23.239 Spray characteristics.
§ 23.251 Vibration and buffeting.
§ 23.253 High speed characteristics.
§ 23.255 Out of trim characteristics.
§ 23.2100 Weight and center of gravity.
§ 23.2105 Performance data.
§ 23.2110 Stall speed.
§ 23.2115 Takeoff performance.
§ 23.2120 Climb requirements.
§ 23.2125 Climb information.
§ 23.2130 Landing.
§ 23.2135 Controllability.
§ 23.2140 Trim.
§ 23.2145 Stability.
§ 23.2150 Stall characteristics, stall warning, and spins.
§ 23.2155 Ground and water handling characteristics.
§ 23.2160 Vibration, buffeting, and high-speed characteristics.
§ 23.2165 Performance and flight characteristics requirements for flight in icing conditions.
Subpart C—Structures
§ 23.301 Loads.
§ 23.302 Canard or tandem wing configurations.
§ 23.303 Factor of safety.
§ 23.305 Strength and deformation.
§ 23.307 Proof of structure.
§ 23.321 General.
§ 23.331 Symmetrical flight conditions.
§ 23.333 Flight envelope.
§ 23.335 Design airspeeds.
§ 23.337 Limit maneuvering load factors.
§ 23.341 Gust loads factors.
§ 23.343 Design fuel loads.
§ 23.345 High lift devices.
§ 23.347 Unsymmetrical flight conditions.
§ 23.349 Rolling conditions.
§ 23.351 Yawing conditions.
§ 23.361 Engine torque.
§ 23.363 Side load on engine mount.
§ 23.365 Pressurized cabin loads.
§ 23.367 Unsymmetrical loads due to engine failure.
§ 23.369 Rear lift truss.
§ 23.371 Gyroscopic and aerodynamic loads.
§ 23.373 Speed control devices.
§ 23.391 Control surface loads.
§ 23.393 Loads parallel to hinge line.
§ 23.395 Control system loads.
§ 23.397 Limit control forces and torques.
§ 23.399 Dual control system.
§ 23.405 Secondary control system.
§ 23.407 Trim tab effects.
§ 23.409 Tabs.
§ 23.415 Ground gust conditions.
§ 23.421 Balancing loads.
§ 23.423 Maneuvering loads.
§ 23.425 Gust loads.
§ 23.427 Unsymmetrical loads.
§ 23.441 Maneuvering loads.
§ 23.443 Gust loads.
§ 23.445 Outboard fins or winglets.
§ 23.455 Ailerons.
§ 23.459 Special devices.
§ 23.471 General.
§ 23.473 Ground load conditions and assumptions.
§ 23.477 Landing gear arrangement.
§ 23.479 Level landing conditions.
§ 23.481 Tail down landing conditions.
§ 23.483 One-wheel landing conditions.
§ 23.485 Side load conditions.
§ 23.493 Braked roll conditions.
§ 23.497 Supplementary conditions for tail wheels.
§ 23.499 Supplementary conditions for nose wheels.
§ 23.505 Supplementary conditions for skiplanes.
§ 23.507 Jacking loads.
§ 23.509 Towing loads.
§ 23.511 Ground load; unsymmetrical loads on multiple-wheel units.
§ 23.521 Water load conditions.
§ 23.523 Design weights and center of gravity positions.
§ 23.525 Application of loads.
§ 23.527 Hull and main float load factors.
§ 23.529 Hull and main float landing conditions.
§ 23.531 Hull and main float takeoff condition.
§ 23.533 Hull and main float bottom pressures.
§ 23.535 Auxiliary float loads.
§ 23.537 Seawing loads.
§ 23.561 General.
§ 23.562 Emergency landing dynamic conditions.
§ 23.571 Metallic pressurized cabin structures.
§ 23.572 Metallic wing, empennage, and associated structures.
§ 23.573 Damage tolerance and fatigue evaluation of structure.
§ 23.574 Metallic damage tolerance and fatigue evaluation of commuter category airplanes.
§ 23.575 Inspections and other procedures.
§ 23.2200 Structural design envelope.
§ 23.2205 Interaction of systems and structures.
§ 23.2210 Structural design loads.
§ 23.2215 Flight load conditions.
§ 23.2220 Ground and water load conditions.
§ 23.2225 Component loading conditions.
§ 23.2230 Limit and ultimate loads.
§ 23.2235 Structural strength.
§ 23.2240 Structural durability.
§ 23.2245 Aeroelasticity.
§ 23.2250 Design and construction principles.
§ 23.2255 Protection of structure.
§ 23.2260 Materials and processes.
§ 23.2265 Special factors of safety.
§ 23.2270 Emergency conditions.
Subpart D — Design and Construction
§ 23.601 General.
§ 23.603 Materials and workmanship.
§ 23.605 Fabrication methods.
§ 23.607 Fasteners.
§ 23.609 Protection of structure.
§ 23.611 Accessibility provisions.
§ 23.613 Material strength properties and design values.
§ 23.619 Special factors.
§ 23.621 Casting factors.
§ 23.623 Bearing factors.
§ 23.625 Fitting factors.
§ 23.627 Fatigue strength.
§ 23.629 Flutter.
§ 23.641 Proof of strength.
§ 23.651 Proof of strength.
§ 23.655 Installation.
§ 23.657 Hinges.
§ 23.659 Mass balance.
§ 23.671 General.
§ 23.672 Stability augmentation and automatic and power-operated systems.
§ 23.673 Primary flight controls.
§ 23.675 Stops.
§ 23.677 Trim systems.
§ 23.679 Control system locks.
§ 23.681 Limit load static tests.
§ 23.683 Operation tests.
§ 23.685 Control system details.
§ 23.687 Spring devices.
§ 23.689 Cable systems.
§ 23.691 Artificial stall barrier system.
§ 23.693 Joints.
§ 23.697 Wing flap controls.
§ 23.699 Wing flap position indicator.
§ 23.701 Flap interconnection.
§ 23.703 Takeoff warning system.
§ 23.721 General.
§ 23.723 Shock absorption tests.
§ 23.725 Limit drop tests.
§ 23.726 Ground load dynamic tests.
§ 23.727 Reserve energy absorption drop test.
§ 23.729 Landing gear extension and retraction system.
§ 23.731 Wheels.
§ 23.733 Tires.
§ 23.735 Brakes.
§ 23.737 Skis.
§ 23.745 Nose/tail wheel steering.
§ 23.751 Main float buoyancy.
§ 23.753 Main float design.
§ 23.755 Hulls.
§ 23.757 Auxiliary floats.
§ 23.771 Pilot compartment.
§ 23.773 Pilot compartment view.
§ 23.775 Windshields and windows.
§ 23.777 Cockpit controls.
§ 23.779 Motion and effect of cockpit controls.
§ 23.781 Cockpit control knob shape.
§ 23.783 Doors.
§ 23.785 Seats, berths, litters, safety belts, and shoulder harnesses.
§ 23.787 Baggage and cargo compartments.
§ 23.791 Passenger information signs.
§ 23.803 Emergency evacuation.
§ 23.805 Flightcrew emergency exits.
§ 23.807 Emergency exits.
§ 23.811 Emergency exit marking.
§ 23.812 Emergency lighting.
§ 23.813 Emergency exit access.
§ 23.815 Width of aisle.
§ 23.831 Ventilation.
§ 23.841 Pressurized cabins.
§ 23.843 Pressurization tests.
§ 23.851 Fire extinguishers.
§ 23.853 Passenger and crew compartment interiors.
§ 23.855 Cargo and baggage compartment fire protection.
§ 23.856 Thermal/acoustic insulation materials.
§ 23.859 Combustion heater fire protection.
§ 23.863 Flammable fluid fire protection.
§ 23.865 Fire protection of flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structure.
§ 23.867 Electrical bonding and protection against lightning and static electricity.
§ 23.871 Leveling means.
§ 23.2300 Flight control systems.
§ 23.2305 Landing gear systems.
§ 23.2310 Buoyancy for seaplanes and amphibians.
§ 23.2315 Means of egress and emergency exits.
§ 23.2320 Occupant physical environment.
§ 23.2325 Fire protection.
§ 23.2330 Fire protection in designated fire zones and adjacent areas.
§ 23.2335 Lightning protection.
Subpart E — Powerplant
§ 23.901 Installation.
§ 23.903 Engines.
§ 23.904 Automatic power reserve system.
§ 23.905 Propellers.
§ 23.907 Propeller vibration and fatigue.
§ 23.909 Turbocharger systems.
§ 23.925 Propeller clearance.
§ 23.929 Engine installation ice protection.
§ 23.933 Reversing systems.
§ 23.934 Turbojet and turbofan engine thrust reverser systems tests.
§ 23.937 Turbopropeller-drag limiting systems.
§ 23.939 Powerplant operating characteristics.
§ 23.943 Negative acceleration.
§ 23.951 General.
§ 23.953 Fuel system independence.
§ 23.954 Fuel system lightning protection.
§ 23.955 Fuel flow.
§ 23.957 Flow between interconnected tanks.
§ 23.959 Unusable fuel supply.
§ 23.961 Fuel system hot weather operation.
§ 23.963 Fuel tanks: General.
§ 23.965 Fuel tank tests.
§ 23.967 Fuel tank installation.
§ 23.969 Fuel tank expansion space.
§ 23.971 Fuel tank sump.
§ 23.973 Fuel tank filler connection.
§ 23.975 Fuel tank vents and carburetor vapor vents.
§ 23.977 Fuel tank outlet.
§ 23.979 Pressure fueling systems.
§ 23.991 Fuel pumps.
§ 23.993 Fuel system lines and fittings.
§ 23.994 Fuel system components.
§ 23.995 Fuel valves and controls.
§ 23.997 Fuel strainer or filter.
§ 23.999 Fuel system drains.
§ 23.1001 Fuel jettisoning system.
§ 23.1011 General.
§ 23.1013 Oil tanks.
§ 23.1015 Oil tank tests.
§ 23.1017 Oil lines and fittings.
§ 23.1019 Oil strainer or filter.
§ 23.1021 Oil system drains.
§ 23.1023 Oil radiators.
§ 23.1027 Propeller feathering system.
§ 23.1041 General.
§ 23.1043 Cooling tests.
§ 23.1045 Cooling test procedures for turbine engine powered airplanes.
§ 23.1047 Cooling test procedures for reciprocating engine powered airplanes.
§ 23.1061 Installation.
§ 23.1063 Coolant tank tests.
§ 23.1091 Air induction system.
§ 23.1093 Induction system icing protection.
§ 23.1095 Carburetor deicing fluid flow rate.
§ 23.1097 Carburetor deicing fluid system capacity.
§ 23.1099 Carburetor deicing fluid system detail design.
§ 23.1101 Induction air preheater design.
§ 23.1103 Induction system ducts.
§ 23.1105 Induction system screens.
§ 23.1107 Induction system filters.
§ 23.1109 Turbocharger bleed air system.
§ 23.1111 Turbine engine bleed air system.
§ 23.1121 General.
§ 23.1123 Exhaust system.
§ 23.1125 Exhaust heat exchangers.
§ 23.1141 Powerplant controls: General.
§ 23.1142 Auxiliary power unit controls.
§ 23.1143 Engine controls.
§ 23.1145 Ignition switches.
§ 23.1147 Mixture controls.
§ 23.1149 Propeller speed and pitch controls.
§ 23.1153 Propeller feathering controls.
§ 23.1155 Turbine engine reverse thrust and propeller pitch settings below the flight regime.
§ 23.1157 Carburetor air temperature controls.
§ 23.1163 Powerplant accessories.
§ 23.1165 Engine ignition systems.
§ 23.1181 Designated fire zones; regions included.
§ 23.1182 Nacelle areas behind firewalls.
§ 23.1183 Lines, fittings, and components.
§ 23.1189 Shutoff means.
§ 23.1191 Firewalls.
§ 23.1192 Engine accessory compartment diaphragm.
§ 23.1193 Cowling and nacelle.
§ 23.1195 Fire extinguishing systems.
§ 23.1197 Fire extinguishing agents.
§ 23.1199 Extinguishing agent containers.
§ 23.1201 Fire extinguishing systems materials.
§ 23.1203 Fire detector system.
§ 23.2400 Powerplant installation.
§ 23.2405 Automatic power or thrust control systems.
§ 23.2410 Powerplant installation hazard assessment.
§ 23.2415 Powerplant ice protection.
§ 23.2420 Reversing systems.
§ 23.2425 Powerplant operational characteristics.
§ 23.2430 Fuel systems.
§ 23.2435 Powerplant induction and exhaust systems.
§ 23.2440 Powerplant fire protection.
Subpart F — Equipment
§ 23.1301 Function and installation.
§ 23.1303 Flight and navigation instruments.
§ 23.1305 Powerplant instruments.
§ 23.1306 Electrical and electronic system lightning protection.
§ 23.1307 Miscellaneous equipment.
§ 23.1308 High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection.
§ 23.1309 Equipment, systems, and installations.
§ 23.1310 Power source capacity and distribution.
§ 23.1311 Electronic display instrument systems.
§ 23.1321 Arrangement and visibility.
§ 23.1322 Warning, caution, and advisory lights.
§ 23.1323 Airspeed indicating system.
§ 23.1325 Static pressure system.
§ 23.1326 Pitot heat indication systems.
§ 23.1327 Magnetic direction indicator.
§ 23.1329 Automatic pilot system.
§ 23.1331 Instruments using a power source.
§ 23.1335 Flight director systems.
§ 23.1337 Powerplant instruments installation.
§ 23.1351 General.
§ 23.1353 Storage battery design and installation.
§ 23.1357 Circuit protective devices.
§ 23.1359 Electrical system fire protection.
§ 23.1361 Master switch arrangement.
§ 23.1365 Electric cables and equipment.
§ 23.1367 Switches.
§ 23.1381 Instrument lights.
§ 23.1383 Taxi and landing lights.
§ 23.1385 Position light system installation.
§ 23.1387 Position light system dihedral angles.
§ 23.1389 Position light distribution and intensities.
§ 23.1391 Minimum intensities in the horizontal plane of position lights.
§ 23.1393 Minimum intensities in any vertical plane of position lights.
§ 23.1395 Maximum intensities in overlapping beams of position lights.
§ 23.1397 Color specifications.
§ 23.1399 Riding light.
§ 23.1401 Anticollision light system.
§ 23.1411 General.
§ 23.1415 Ditching equipment.
§ 23.1416 Pneumatic de-icer boot system.
§ 23.1419 Ice protection.
§ 23.1431 Electronic equipment.
§ 23.1435 Hydraulic systems.
§ 23.1437 Accessories for multiengine airplanes.
§ 23.1438 Pressurization and pneumatic systems.
§ 23.1441 Oxygen equipment and supply.
§ 23.1443 Minimum mass flow of supplemental oxygen.
§ 23.1445 Oxygen distribution system.
§ 23.1447 Equipment standards for oxygen dispensing units.
§ 23.1449 Means for determining use of oxygen.
§ 23.1450 Chemical oxygen generators.
§ 23.1451 Fire protection for oxygen equipment.
§ 23.1453 Protection of oxygen equipment from rupture.
§ 23.1461 Equipment containing high energy rotors.
§ 23.2500 Airplane level systems requirements.
§ 23.2505 Function and installation.
§ 23.2510 Equipment, systems, and installations.
§ 23.2515 Electrical and electronic system lightning protection.
§ 23.2520 High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) protection.
§ 23.2525 System power generation, storage, and distribution.
§ 23.2530 External and cockpit lighting.
§ 23.2535 Safety equipment.
§ 23.2540 Flight in icing conditions.
§ 23.2545 Pressurized systems elements.
§ 23.2550 Equipment containing high-energy rotors.
Subpart G—Flightcrew Interface and Other Information
§ 23.1501 General.
§ 23.1505 Airspeed limitations.
§ 23.1507 Operating maneuvering speed.
§ 23.1511 Flap extended speed.
§ 23.1513 Minimum control speed.
§ 23.1519 Weight and center of gravity.
§ 23.1521 Powerplant limitations.
§ 23.1522 Auxiliary power unit limitations.
§ 23.1523 Minimum flight crew.
§ 23.1524 Maximum passenger seating configuration.
§ 23.1525 Kinds of operation.
§ 23.1527 Maximum operating altitude.
§ 23.1541 General.
§ 23.1543 Instrument markings: General.
§ 23.1545 Airspeed indicator.
§ 23.1547 Magnetic direction indicator.
§ 23.1549 Powerplant and auxiliary power unit instruments.
§ 23.1551 Oil quantity indicator.
§ 23.1553 Fuel quantity indicator.
§ 23.1555 Control markings.
§ 23.1557 Miscellaneous markings and placards.
§ 23.1559 Operating limitations placard.
§ 23.1561 Safety equipment.
§ 23.1563 Airspeed placards.
§ 23.1567 Flight maneuver placard.
§ 23.1581 General.
§ 23.1583 Operating limitations.
§ 23.1585 Operating procedures.
§ 23.1587 Performance information.
§ 23.1589 Loading information.
§ 23.2600 Flightcrew interface.
§ 23.2605 Installation and operation.
§ 23.2610 Instrument markings, control markings, and placards.
§ 23.2615 Flight, navigation, and powerplant instruments.
§ 23.2620 Airplane flight manual.
Appendix A to Part 23—Instructions for Continued Airworthiness
Appendix B to Part 23 [Reserved]
Appendix C to Part 23—Basic Landing Conditions
Appendix D to Part 23—Wheel Spin-Up and Spring-Back Loads
Appendix E to Part 23 [Reserved]
Appendix F to Part 23—Test Procedure
Appendix G to Part 23—Instructions for Continued Airworthiness
Appendix H to Part 23—Installation of An Automatic Power Reserve (APR) System
Appendix I to Part 23—Seaplane Loads
Appendix J to Part 23—HIRF Environments and Equipment HIRF Test Levels
Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 23