Part 25 - AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES  


Part 25 - AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES
Subpart A — General
§ 25.1 Applicability.
§ 25.2 Special retroactive requirements.
§ 25.3 Special provisions for ETOPS type design approvals.
§ 25.5 Incorporations by reference.
Subpart B — Flight
§ 25.21 Proof of compliance.
§ 25.23 Load distribution limits.
§ 25.25 Weight limits.
§ 25.27 Center of gravity limits.
§ 25.29 Empty weight and corresponding center of gravity.
§ 25.31 Removable ballast.
§ 25.33 Propeller speed and pitch limits.
§ 25.101 General.
§ 25.103 Stall speed.
§ 25.105 Takeoff.
§ 25.107 Takeoff speeds.
§ 25.109 Accelerate-stop distance.
§ 25.111 Takeoff path.
§ 25.113 Takeoff distance and takeoff run.
§ 25.115 Takeoff flight path.
§ 25.117 Climb: general.
§ 25.119 Landing climb: All-engines-operating.
§ 25.121 Climb: One-engine-inoperative.
§ 25.123 En route flight paths.
§ 25.125 Landing.
§ 25.143 General.
§ 25.145 Longitudinal control.
§ 25.147 Directional and lateral control.
§ 25.149 Minimum control speed.
§ 25.161 Trim.
§ 25.171 General.
§ 25.173 Static longitudinal stability.
§ 25.175 Demonstration of static longitudinal stability.
§ 25.177 Static lateral-directional stability.
§ 25.181 Dynamic stability.
§ 25.201 Stall demonstration.
§ 25.203 Stall characteristics.
§ 25.207 Stall warning.
§ 25.231 Longitudinal stability and control.
§ 25.233 Directional stability and control.
§ 25.235 Taxiing condition.
§ 25.237 Wind velocities.
§ 25.239 Spray characteristics, control, and stability on water.
§ 25.251 Vibration and buffeting.
§ 25.253 High-speed characteristics.
§ 25.255 Out-of-trim characteristics.
Subpart C — Structure
§ 25.301 Loads.
§ 25.303 Factor of safety.
§ 25.305 Strength and deformation.
§ 25.307 Proof of structure.
§ 25.321 General.
§ 25.331 Symmetric maneuvering conditions.
§ 25.333 Flight maneuvering envelope.
§ 25.335 Design airspeeds.
§ 25.337 Limit maneuvering load factors.
§ 25.341 Gust and turbulence loads.
§ 25.343 Design fuel and oil loads.
§ 25.345 High lift devices.
§ 25.349 Rolling conditions.
§ 25.351 Yaw maneuver conditions.
§ 25.361 Engine and auxiliary power unit torque.
§ 25.362 Engine failure loads.
§ 25.363 Side load on engine and auxiliary power unit mounts.
§ 25.365 Pressurized compartment loads.
§ 25.367 Unsymmetrical loads due to engine failure.
§ 25.371 Gyroscopic loads.
§ 25.373 Speed control devices.
§ 25.391 Control surface loads: General.
§ 25.393 Loads parallel to hinge line.
§ 25.395 Control system.
§ 25.397 Control system loads.
§ 25.399 Dual control system.
§ 25.405 Secondary control system.
§ 25.407 Trim tab effects.
§ 25.409 Tabs.
§ 25.415 Ground gust conditions.
§ 25.427 Unsymmetrical loads.
§ 25.445 Auxiliary aerodynamic surfaces.
§ 25.457 Wing flaps.
§ 25.459 Special devices.
§ 25.471 General.
§ 25.473 Landing load conditions and assumptions.
§ 25.477 Landing gear arrangement.
§ 25.479 Level landing conditions.
§ 25.481 Tail-down landing conditions.
§ 25.483 One-gear landing conditions.
§ 25.485 Side load conditions.
§ 25.487 Rebound landing condition.
§ 25.489 Ground handling conditions.
§ 25.491 Taxi, takeoff and landing roll.
§ 25.493 Braked roll conditions.
§ 25.495 Turning.
§ 25.497 Tail-wheel yawing.
§ 25.499 Nose-wheel yaw and steering.
§ 25.503 Pivoting.
§ 25.507 Reversed braking.
§ 25.509 Towing loads.
§ 25.511 Ground load: unsymmetrical loads on multiple-wheel units.
§ 25.519 Jacking and tie-down provisions.
§ 25.521 General.
§ 25.523 Design weights and center of gravity positions.
§ 25.525 Application of loads.
§ 25.527 Hull and main float load factors.
§ 25.529 Hull and main float landing conditions.
§ 25.531 Hull and main float takeoff condition.
§ 25.533 Hull and main float bottom pressures.
§ 25.535 Auxiliary float loads.
§ 25.537 Seawing loads.
§ 25.561 General.
§ 25.562 Emergency landing dynamic conditions.
§ 25.563 Structural ditching provisions.
§ 25.571 Damage — tolerance and fatigue evaluation of structure.
§ 25.581 Lightning protection.
Subpart D — Design and Construction
§ 25.601 General.
§ 25.603 Materials.
§ 25.605 Fabrication methods.
§ 25.607 Fasteners.
§ 25.609 Protection of structure.
§ 25.611 Accessibility provisions.
§ 25.613 Material strength properties and material design values.
§ 25.619 Special factors.
§ 25.621 Casting factors.
§ 25.623 Bearing factors.
§ 25.625 Fitting factors.
§ 25.629 Aeroelastic stability requirements.
§ 25.631 Bird strike damage.
§ 25.651 Proof of strength.
§ 25.655 Installation.
§ 25.657 Hinges.
§ 25.671 General.
§ 25.672 Stability augmentation and automatic and power-operated systems.
§ 25.675 Stops.
§ 25.677 Trim systems.
§ 25.679 Control system gust locks.
§ 25.681 Limit load static tests.
§ 25.683 Operation tests.
§ 25.685 Control system details.
§ 25.689 Cable systems.
§ 25.693 Joints.
§ 25.697 Lift and drag devices, controls.
§ 25.699 Lift and drag device indicator.
§ 25.701 Flap and slat interconnection.
§ 25.703 Takeoff warning system.
§ 25.721 General.
§ 25.723 Shock absorption tests.
§ 25.729 Retracting mechanism.
§ 25.731 Wheels.
§ 25.733 Tires.
§ 25.735 Brakes and braking systems.
§ 25.737 Skis.
§ 25.751 Main float buoyancy.
§ 25.753 Main float design.
§ 25.755 Hulls.
§ 25.771 Pilot compartment.
§ 25.772 Pilot compartment doors.
§ 25.773 Pilot compartment view.
§ 25.775 Windshields and windows.
§ 25.777 Cockpit controls.
§ 25.779 Motion and effect of cockpit controls.
§ 25.781 Cockpit control knob shape.
§ 25.783 Fuselage doors.
§ 25.785 Seats, berths, safety belts, and harnesses.
§ 25.787 Stowage compartments.
§ 25.789 Retention of items of mass in passenger and crew compartments and galleys.
§ 25.791 Passenger information signs and placards.
§ 25.793 Floor surfaces.
§ 25.795 Security considerations.
§ 25.801 Ditching.
§ 25.803 Emergency evacuation.
§ 25.807 Emergency exits.
§ 25.809 Emergency exit arrangement.
§ 25.810 Emergency egress assist means and escape routes.
§ 25.811 Emergency exit marking.
§ 25.812 Emergency lighting.
§ 25.813 Emergency exit access.
§ 25.815 Width of aisle.
§ 25.817 Maximum number of seats abreast.
§ 25.819 Lower deck service compartments (including galleys).
§ 25.820 Lavatory doors.
§ 25.831 Ventilation.
§ 25.832 Cabin ozone concentration.
§ 25.833 Combustion heating systems.
§ 25.841 Pressurized cabins.
§ 25.843 Tests for pressurized cabins.
§ 25.851 Fire extinguishers.
§ 25.853 Compartment interiors.
§ 25.854 Lavatory fire protection.
§ 25.855 Cargo or baggage compartments.
§ 25.856 Thermal/Acoustic insulation materials.
§ 25.857 Cargo compartment classification.
§ 25.858 Cargo or baggage compartment smoke or fire detection systems.
§ 25.859 Combustion heater fire protection.
§ 25.863 Flammable fluid fire protection.
§ 25.865 Fire protection of flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structure.
§ 25.867 Fire protection: other components.
§ 25.869 Fire protection: systems.
§ 25.871 Leveling means.
§ 25.875 Reinforcement near propellers.
§ 25.899 Electrical bonding and protection against static electricity.
§§ 25.725-25.727 [Reserved]
Subpart E — Powerplant
§ 25.901 Installation.
§ 25.903 Engines.
§ 25.904 Automatic takeoff thrust control system (ATTCS).
§ 25.905 Propellers.
§ 25.907 Propeller vibration and fatigue.
§ 25.925 Propeller clearance.
§ 25.929 Propeller deicing.
§ 25.933 Reversing systems.
§ 25.934 Turbojet engine thrust reverser system tests.
§ 25.937 Turbopropeller-drag limiting systems.
§ 25.939 Turbine engine operating characteristics.
§ 25.941 Inlet, engine, and exhaust compatibility.
§ 25.943 Negative acceleration.
§ 25.945 Thrust or power augmentation system.
§ 25.951 General.
§ 25.952 Fuel system analysis and test.
§ 25.953 Fuel system independence.
§ 25.954 Fuel system lightning protection.
§ 25.955 Fuel flow.
§ 25.957 Flow between interconnected tanks.
§ 25.959 Unusable fuel supply.
§ 25.961 Fuel system hot weather operation.
§ 25.963 Fuel tanks: general.
§ 25.965 Fuel tank tests.
§ 25.967 Fuel tank installations.
§ 25.969 Fuel tank expansion space.
§ 25.971 Fuel tank sump.
§ 25.973 Fuel tank filler connection.
§ 25.975 Fuel tank vents and carburetor vapor vents.
§ 25.977 Fuel tank outlet.
§ 25.979 Pressure fueling system.
§ 25.981 Fuel tank explosion prevention.
§ 25.991 Fuel pumps.
§ 25.993 Fuel system lines and fittings.
§ 25.994 Fuel system components.
§ 25.995 Fuel valves.
§ 25.997 Fuel strainer or filter.
§ 25.999 Fuel system drains.
§ 25.1001 Fuel jettisoning system.
§ 25.1011 General.
§ 25.1013 Oil tanks.
§ 25.1015 Oil tank tests.
§ 25.1017 Oil lines and fittings.
§ 25.1019 Oil strainer or filter.
§ 25.1021 Oil system drains.
§ 25.1023 Oil radiators.
§ 25.1025 Oil valves.
§ 25.1027 Propeller feathering system.
§ 25.1041 General.
§ 25.1043 Cooling tests.
§ 25.1045 Cooling test procedures.
§ 25.1091 Air induction.
§ 25.1093 Induction system icing protection.
§ 25.1101 Carburetor air preheater design.
§ 25.1103 Induction system ducts and air duct systems.
§ 25.1105 Induction system screens.
§ 25.1107 Inter-coolers and after-coolers.
§ 25.1121 General.
§ 25.1123 Exhaust piping.
§ 25.1125 Exhaust heat exchangers.
§ 25.1127 Exhaust driven turbo-superchargers.
§ 25.1141 Powerplant controls: general.
§ 25.1142 Auxiliary power unit controls.
§ 25.1143 Engine controls.
§ 25.1145 Ignition switches.
§ 25.1147 Mixture controls.
§ 25.1149 Propeller speed and pitch controls.
§ 25.1153 Propeller feathering controls.
§ 25.1155 Reverse thrust and propeller pitch settings below the flight regime.
§ 25.1157 Carburetor air temperature controls.
§ 25.1159 Supercharger controls.
§ 25.1161 Fuel jettisoning system controls.
§ 25.1163 Powerplant accessories.
§ 25.1165 Engine ignition systems.
§ 25.1167 Accessory gearboxes.
§ 25.1181 Designated fire zones; regions included.
§ 25.1182 Nacelle areas behind firewalls, and engine pod attaching structures containing flammable fluid lines.
§ 25.1183 Flammable fluid-carrying components.
§ 25.1185 Flammable fluids.
§ 25.1187 Drainage and ventilation of fire zones.
§ 25.1189 Shutoff means.
§ 25.1191 Firewalls.
§ 25.1192 Engine accessory section diaphragm.
§ 25.1193 Cowling and nacelle skin.
§ 25.1195 Fire extinguishing systems.
§ 25.1197 Fire extinguishing agents.
§ 25.1199 Extinguishing agent containers.
§ 25.1201 Fire extinguishing system materials.
§ 25.1203 Fire detector system.
§ 25.1207 Compliance.
Subpart F — Equipment
§ 25.1301 Function and installation.
§ 25.1302 Installed systems and equipment for use by the flightcrew.
§ 25.1303 Flight and navigation instruments.
§ 25.1305 Powerplant instruments.
§ 25.1307 Miscellaneous equipment.
§ 25.1309 Equipment, systems, and installations.
§ 25.1310 Power source capacity and distribution.
§ 25.1316 Electrical and electronic system lightning protection.
§ 25.1317 High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection.
§ 25.1321 Arrangement and visibility.
§ 25.1322 Flightcrew alerting.
§ 25.1323 Airspeed indicating system.
§ 25.1324 Angle of attack system.
§ 25.1325 Static pressure systems.
§ 25.1326 Pitot heat indication systems.
§ 25.1327 Magnetic direction indicator.
§ 25.1329 Flight guidance system.
§ 25.1331 Instruments using a power supply.
§ 25.1333 Instrument systems.
§ 25.1337 Powerplant instruments.
§ 25.1351 General.
§ 25.1353 Electrical equipment and installations.
§ 25.1355 Distribution system.
§ 25.1357 Circuit protective devices.
§ 25.1360 Precautions against injury.
§ 25.1362 Electrical supplies for emergency conditions.
§ 25.1363 Electrical system tests.
§ 25.1365 Electrical appliances, motors, and transformers.
§ 25.1381 Instrument lights.
§ 25.1383 Landing lights.
§ 25.1385 Position light system installation.
§ 25.1387 Position light system dihedral angles.
§ 25.1389 Position light distribution and intensities.
§ 25.1391 Minimum intensities in the horizontal plane of forward and rear position lights.
§ 25.1393 Minimum intensities in any vertical plane of forward and rear position lights.
§ 25.1395 Maximum intensities in overlapping beams of forward and rear position lights.
§ 25.1397 Color specifications.
§ 25.1399 Riding light.
§ 25.1401 Anticollision light system.
§ 25.1403 Wing icing detection lights.
§ 25.1411 General.
§ 25.1415 Ditching equipment.
§ 25.1419 Ice protection.
§ 25.1420 Supercooled large drop icing conditions.
§ 25.1421 Megaphones.
§ 25.1423 Public address system.
§ 25.1431 Electronic equipment.
§ 25.1433 Vacuum systems.
§ 25.1435 Hydraulic systems.
§ 25.1438 Pressurization and pneumatic systems.
§ 25.1439 Protective breathing equipment.
§ 25.1441 Oxygen equipment and supply.
§ 25.1443 Minimum mass flow of supplemental oxygen.
§ 25.1445 Equipment standards for the oxygen distributing system.
§ 25.1447 Equipment standards for oxygen dispensing units.
§ 25.1449 Means for determining use of oxygen.
§ 25.1450 Chemical oxygen generators.
§ 25.1453 Protection of oxygen equipment from rupture.
§ 25.1455 Draining of fluids subject to freezing.
§ 25.1457 Cockpit voice recorders.
§ 25.1459 Flight data recorders.
§ 25.1461 Equipment containing high energy rotors.
Subpart G — Operating Limitations and Information
§ 25.1501 General.
§ 25.1503 Airspeed limitations: general.
§ 25.1505 Maximum operating limit speed.
§ 25.1507 Maneuvering speed.
§ 25.1511 Flap extended speed.
§ 25.1513 Minimum control speed.
§ 25.1515 Landing gear speeds.
§ 25.1516 Other speed limitations.
§ 25.1517 Rough air speed, VRA.
§ 25.1519 Weight, center of gravity, and weight distribution.
§ 25.1521 Powerplant limitations.
§ 25.1522 Auxiliary power unit limitations.
§ 25.1523 Minimum flight crew.
§ 25.1525 Kinds of operation.
§ 25.1527 Ambient air temperature and operating altitude.
§ 25.1529 Instructions for Continued Airworthiness.
§ 25.1531 Maneuvering flight load factors.
§ 25.1533 Additional operating limitations.
§ 25.1535 ETOPS approval.
§ 25.1541 General.
§ 25.1543 Instrument markings: general.
§ 25.1545 Airspeed limitation information.
§ 25.1547 Magnetic direction indicator.
§ 25.1549 Powerplant and auxiliary power unit instruments.
§ 25.1551 Oil quantity indication.
§ 25.1553 Fuel quantity indicator.
§ 25.1555 Control markings.
§ 25.1557 Miscellaneous markings and placards.
§ 25.1561 Safety equipment.
§ 25.1563 Airspeed placard.
§ 25.1581 General.
§ 25.1583 Operating limitations.
§ 25.1585 Operating procedures.
§ 25.1587 Performance information.
Subpart H — Electrical Wiring Interconnection Systems (EWIS)
§ 25.1701 Definition.
§ 25.1703 Function and installation: EWIS.
§ 25.1705 Systems and functions: EWIS.
§ 25.1707 System separation: EWIS.
§ 25.1709 System safety: EWIS.
§ 25.1711 Component identification: EWIS.
§ 25.1713 Fire protection: EWIS.
§ 25.1715 Electrical bonding and protection against static electricity: EWIS.
§ 25.1717 Circuit protective devices: EWIS.
§ 25.1719 Accessibility provisions: EWIS.
§ 25.1721 Protection of EWIS.
§ 25.1723 Flammable fluid fire protection: EWIS.
§ 25.1725 Powerplants: EWIS.
§ 25.1727 Flammable fluid shutoff means: EWIS.
§ 25.1729 Instructions for Continued Airworthiness: EWIS.
§ 25.1731 Powerplant and APU fire detector system: EWIS.
§ 25.1733 Fire detector systems, general: EWIS.
Subpart I — Special Federal Aviation Regulations
§ 25.1801 SFAR No. 111 — Lavatory Oxygen Systems.
Appendix A to Part 25
Appendix B to Part 25
Appendix C to Part 25
Appendix D to Part 25
Appendix E to Part 25
Appendix F to Part 25
Appendix G [Reserved]
Appendix H to Part 25—Instructions for Continued Airworthiness
Appendix I to Part 25—Installation of an Automatic Takeoff Thrust Control System (ATTCS)
Appendix J to Part 25—Emergency Evacuation
Appendix K to Part 25—Extended Operations (ETOPS)
Appendix L to Part 25—HIRF Environments and Equipment HIRF Test Levels
Appendix M to Part 25—Fuel Tank System Flammability Reduction Means
Appendix N TO Part 25—Fuel Tank Flammability Exposure and Reliability Analysis
Appendix O to Part 25—Supercooled Large Drop Icing Conditions
Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 13
Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 109

Authority

49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40113, 44701, 44702 and 44704.

Source

Docket No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, unless otherwise noted.