§ 51.1010 Serious area attainment plan control strategy requirements.  


Latest version.
  • (a) The state shall identify, adopt, and implement best available control measures, including control technologies, on sources of direct PM2.5 emissions and sources of emissions of PM2.5 plan precursors located in any Serious PM2.5 nonattainment area or portion thereof located within the state and consistent with the following:

    (1) The state shall identify all sources of direct PM2.5 emissions and all sources of emissions of PM2.5 precursors in the nonattainment area in accordance with the emissions inventory requirements of §51.1008(b).

    (2) The state shall identify all potential control measures to reduce emissions from all sources of direct PM2.5 emissions and sources of emissions of PM2.5 plan precursors in the nonattainment area identified under paragraph (a)(1) of this section.

    (i) The state shall survey other NAAQS nonattainment areas in the U.S. and identify any measures for direct PM2.5 and PM2.5 plan precursors not previously identified by the state during the development of the Moderate area attainment plan for the area.

    (ii) The state is not required to identify and evaluate potential control measures to reduce emissions of a particular PM2.5 precursor from any existing sources if the state has submitted a comprehensive precursor demonstration approved by the EPA, except where the EPA requires such information as necessary to evaluate the comprehensive precursor demonstration pursuant to §51.1006(a)(1)(ii).

    (iii) The state is not required to identify and evaluate potential control measures to reduce emissions of a particular PM2.5 precursor from any existing major stationary sources if the state has submitted a major stationary source precursor demonstration approved by the EPA, except where the EPA requires such information as necessary to evaluate the major stationary source demonstration pursuant to §51.1006(a)(1)(ii).

    (3) The state may make a demonstration that any measure identified under paragraph (a)(2) of this section is not technologically or economically feasible to implement in whole or in part by the end of the tenth calendar year following the effective date of designation of the area, and may eliminate such whole or partial measure from further consideration under this paragraph.

    (i) For purposes of evaluating the technological feasibility of a potential control measure, the state may consider factors including but not limited to a source's processes and operating procedures, raw materials, physical plant layout, and potential environmental impacts such as increased water pollution, waste disposal, and energy requirements.

    (ii) For purposes of evaluating the economic feasibility of a potential control measure, the state may consider capital costs, operating and maintenance costs, and cost effectiveness of the measure.

    (iii) The state shall submit to the EPA as part of its Serious area attainment plan submission a detailed written justification for eliminating from further consideration any potential control measure identified under paragraph (a)(2) of this section on the basis of technological or economic infeasibility. The state shall provide as part of its written justification an explanation of how its criteria for determining the technological and economic feasibility of potential control measures under paragraphs (a)(3)(i) and (ii) of this section are more stringent than its criteria for determining the technological and economic feasibility of potential control measures under §51.1009(a)(3)(i) and (ii) for the same sources in the PM2.5 nonattainment area.

    (4) Except as provided under paragraph (a)(3) of this section, the state shall adopt and implement all potential control measures identified under paragraph (a)(2) of this section.

    (i) Any control measure that can be implemented in whole or in part by the end of the fourth year following the date of reclassification of the area to Serious shall be considered a best available control measure for the area. Any such control measure that is also a control technology for a stationary source in the area shall be considered a best available control technology for the area.

    (ii) Any control measure that can be implemented in whole or in part between the end of the fourth year following the date of reclassification of the area to Serious and the applicable attainment date for the area shall be considered an additional feasible measure.

    (5) The state shall use air quality modeling that meets the requirements of §51.1011(b) and that accounts for emissions reductions estimated due to all best available control measures, including best available control technologies, and additional feasible measures identified for sources of direct PM2.5 emissions and sources of emissions of PM2.5 plan precursors in the area to demonstrate that the area can attain the PM2.5 NAAQS as expeditiously as practicable but no later than the end of the tenth calendar year following the effective date of designation of the area, or to demonstrate that the Serious PM2.5 nonattainment area cannot practicably attain the applicable PM2.5 NAAQS by such date.

    (b) For a Serious PM2.5 nonattainment area for which air quality modeling demonstrates the area cannot practicably attain the applicable PM2.5 NAAQS by the end of the tenth calendar year following the date of designation of the area, the state shall identify, adopt, and implement the most stringent control measures that are included in the attainment plan for any state or are achieved in practice in any state, and can be feasibly implemented in the area, consistent with the following requirements.

    (1) The state shall identify all sources of direct PM2.5 emissions and sources of emissions of PM2.5 precursors in the nonattainment area in accordance with the emissions inventory requirements of §51.1008(b).

    (2) The state shall identify all potential control measures to reduce emissions from all sources of direct PM2.5 emissions and sources of emissions of PM2.5 plan precursors in the nonattainment area identified under paragraph (b)(1) of this section.

    (i) For the sources and source categories represented in the emission inventory for the nonattainment area, the state shall identify the most stringent measures for reducing direct PM2.5 and PM2.5 plan precursors adopted into any SIP or used in practice to control emissions in any state.

    (ii) The state shall reconsider and reassess any measures previously rejected by the state during the development of any previous Moderate area or Serious area attainment plan control strategy for the area.

    (3) The state may make a demonstration that a measure identified under paragraph (b)(2) of this section is not technologically or economically feasible to implement in whole or in part by 5 years after the applicable attainment date for the area, and may eliminate such whole or partial measure from further consideration under this paragraph.

    (i) For purposes of evaluating the technological feasibility of a potential control measure, the state may consider factors including but not limited to a source's processes and operating procedures, raw materials, physical plant layout, and potential environmental impacts such as increased water pollution, waste disposal, and energy requirements.

    (ii) For purposes of evaluating the economic feasibility of a potential control measure, the state may consider capital costs, operating and maintenance costs, and cost effectiveness of the measure.

    (iii) The state shall submit to the EPA as part of its Serious area attainment plan submission a detailed written justification for eliminating from further consideration any potential control measure identified under paragraph (b)(2) of this section on the basis of technological or economic infeasibility.

    (4) Except as provided under paragraph (b)(3) of this section, the state shall adopt and implement all control measures identified under paragraph (b)(2) of this section that collectively shall achieve attainment as expeditiously as practicable but no later than 5 years after the applicable attainment date for the area.

    (5) The state shall use air quality modeling that meets the requirements of §51.1011(b) and that accounts for emissions reductions estimated due to all most stringent measures; best available control measures, including best available control technologies; and additional feasible measures identified for sources of direct PM2.5 emissions and sources of emissions of PM2.5 plan precursors in the area to demonstrate that the area can attain the PM2.5 NAAQS as expeditiously as practicable but no later than the end of the fifteenth calendar year following the effective date of designation of the area.

    (c) For a Serious PM2.5 nonattainment area that the EPA has determined has failed to attain by the applicable attainment date, the state shall submit a revised attainment plan with a control strategy that demonstrates that each year the area will achieve at least a 5 percent reduction in emissions of direct PM2.5 or a 5 percent reduction in emissions of a PM2.5 plan precursor based on the most recent emissions inventory for the area; and that the area will attain the standard as expeditiously as practicable consistent with §51.1004(a)(3). The plan shall meet the requirements of §51.1003(c)-(d), and the following requirements:

    (1) The state shall identify all sources of direct PM2.5 emissions and sources of emissions of PM2.5 precursors in the nonattainment area in accordance with the emissions inventory requirements of §51.1008(b).

    (2) The state shall identify all potential control measures to reduce emissions from all sources of direct PM2.5 emissions and sources of emissions of PM2.5 plan precursors in the nonattainment area identified under paragraph (c)(1) of this section.

    (i) For the sources and source categories represented in the emission inventory for the nonattainment area, the state shall identify the most stringent measures for reducing direct PM2.5 and PM2.5 plan precursors adopted into any SIP or used in practice to control emissions in any state, as applicable.

    (ii) The state shall reconsider and reassess any measures previously rejected by the state during the development of any Moderate area or Serious area attainment plan control strategy for the area.

    (3) The state may make a demonstration that a measure identified under paragraph (c)(2) of this section is not technologically or economically feasible to implement in whole or in part within 5 years or such longer period as the EPA may determine is appropriate after the EPA's determination that the area failed to attain by the Serious area attainment date, and may eliminate such whole or partial measure from further consideration under this paragraph.

    (i) For purposes of evaluating the technological feasibility of a potential control measure, the state may consider factors including but not limited to a source's processes and operating procedures, raw materials, physical plant layout, and potential environmental impacts such as increased water pollution, waste disposal, and energy requirements.

    (ii) For purposes of evaluating the economic feasibility of a potential control measure, the state may consider capital costs, operating and maintenance costs, and cost effectiveness of the measure.

    (iii) The state shall submit to the EPA as part of its Serious area attainment plan submission a detailed written justification for eliminating from further consideration any potential control measure identified under paragraph (c)(2) of this section on the basis of technological or economic infeasibility.

    (4) Except as provided under paragraph (c)(3) of this section, the state shall adopt and implement all control measures identified under paragraph (c)(2) of this section that collectively achieve attainment of the standard as expeditiously as practicable pursuant to §51.1004(a)(3).

    (5) The state shall conduct air quality modeling that meets the requirements of §51.1011(b) and that accounts for emissions reductions due to control measures needed to meet the annual reduction requirement of 5 percent of direct PM2.5 or a PM2.5 plan precursor; most stringent measures; best available control measures, including best available control technologies; and additional feasible measures identified for sources of direct PM2.5 emissions and sources of emissions of PM2.5 plan precursors in the area in order to demonstrate that the area can attain the PM2.5 NAAQS as expeditiously as practicable.

    (d) The state shall adopt control measures, including control technologies, on sources of direct PM2.5 emissions and sources of emissions of PM2.5 plan precursors located within the state but outside the Serious PM2.5 nonattainment area if adopting such control measures is necessary to provide for attainment of the applicable PM2.5 NAAQS in such area by the attainment date.

    (e) For new or revised source emissions limitations on sources of direct PM2.5 emissions, the state shall establish such emission limitations to apply either to the total of the filterable plus condensable fractions of direct PM2.5, or to filterable PM2.5 and condensable PM2.5 separately.