Part 91 - GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES  


[Reserved]
Subpart A — General
§ 91.1 Applicability.
§ 91.3 Responsibility and authority of the pilot in command.
§ 91.5 Pilot in command of aircraft requiring more than one required pilot.
§ 91.7 Civil aircraft airworthiness.
§ 91.9 Civil aircraft flight manual, marking, and placard requirements.
§ 91.11 Prohibition on interference with crewmembers.
§ 91.13 Careless or reckless operation.
§ 91.15 Dropping objects.
§ 91.17 Alcohol or drugs.
§ 91.19 Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances.
§ 91.21 Portable electronic devices.
§ 91.23 Truth-in-leasing clause requirement in leases and conditional sales contracts.
§ 91.25 Aviation Safety Reporting Program: Prohibition against use of reports for enforcement purposes.
§§ 91.27-91.99 [Reserved]
Subpart B — Flight Rules
§ 91.101 Applicability.
§ 91.103 Preflight action.
§ 91.105 Flight crewmembers at stations.
§ 91.107 Use of safety belts, shoulder harnesses, and child restraint systems.
§ 91.109 Flight instruction; Simulated instrument flight and certain flight tests.
§ 91.111 Operating near other aircraft.
§ 91.113 Right-of-way rules: Except water operations.
§ 91.115 Right-of-way rules: Water operations.
§ 91.117 Aircraft speed.
§ 91.119 Minimum safe altitudes: General.
§ 91.121 Altimeter settings.
§ 91.123 Compliance with ATC clearances and instructions.
§ 91.125 ATC light signals.
§ 91.126 Operating on or in the vicinity of an airport in Class G airspace.
§ 91.127 Operating on or in the vicinity of an airport in Class E airspace.
§ 91.129 Operations in Class D airspace.
§ 91.130 Operations in Class C airspace.
§ 91.131 Operations in Class B airspace.
§ 91.133 Restricted and prohibited areas.
§ 91.135 Operations in Class A airspace.
§ 91.137 Temporary flight restrictions in the vicinity of disaster/hazard areas.
§ 91.138 Temporary flight restrictions in national disaster areas in the State of Hawaii.
§ 91.139 Emergency air traffic rules.
§ 91.141 Flight restrictions in the proximity of the Presidential and other parties.
§ 91.143 Flight limitation in the proximity of space flight operations.
§ 91.144 Temporary restriction on flight operations during abnormally high barometric pressure conditions.
§ 91.145 Management of aircraft operations in the vicinity of aerial demonstrations and major sporting events.
§ 91.146 Passenger-carrying flights for the benefit of a charitable, nonprofit, or community event.
§ 91.147 Passenger carrying flights for compensation or hire.
§ 91.151 Fuel requirements for flight in VFR conditions.
§ 91.153 VFR flight plan: Information required.
§ 91.155 Basic VFR weather minimums.
§ 91.157 Special VFR weather minimums.
§ 91.159 VFR cruising altitude or flight level.
§ 91.161 Special awareness training required for pilots flying under visual flight rules within a 60-nautical mile radius of the Washington, DC VOR/DME.
§ 91.167 Fuel requirements for flight in IFR conditions.
§ 91.169 IFR flight plan: Information required.
§ 91.171 VOR equipment check for IFR operations.
§ 91.173 ATC clearance and flight plan required.
§ 91.175 Takeoff and landing under IFR.
§ 91.176 Straight-in landing operations below DA/DH or MDA using an enhanced flight vision system (EFVS) under IFR.
§ 91.177 Minimum altitudes for IFR operations.
§ 91.179 IFR cruising altitude or flight level.
§ 91.180 Operations within airspace designated as Reduced Vertical Separation Minimum airspace.
§ 91.181 Course to be flown.
§ 91.183 IFR communications.
§ 91.185 IFR operations: Two-way radio communications failure.
§ 91.187 Operation under IFR in controlled airspace: Malfunction reports.
§ 91.189 Category II and III operations: General operating rules.
§ 91.191 Category II and Category III manual.
§ 91.193 Certificate of authorization for certain Category II operations.
§§ 91.148-91.149 [Reserved]
§§ 91.162-91.165 [Reserved]
§§ 91.195-91.199 [Reserved]
Subpart C — Equipment, Instrument, and Certificate Requirements
§ 91.201 [Reserved]
§ 91.203 Civil aircraft: Certifications required.
§ 91.205 Powered civil aircraft with standard category U.S. airworthiness certificates: Instrument and equipment requirements.
§ 91.207 Emergency locator transmitters.
§ 91.209 Aircraft lights.
§ 91.211 Supplemental oxygen.
§ 91.213 Inoperative instruments and equipment.
§ 91.215 ATC transponder and altitude reporting equipment and use.
§ 91.217 Data correspondence between automatically reported pressure altitude data and the pilot's altitude reference.
§ 91.219 Altitude alerting system or device: Turbojet-powered civil airplanes.
§ 91.221 Traffic alert and collision avoidance system equipment and use.
§ 91.223 Terrain awareness and warning system.
§ 91.225 Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) Out equipment and use.
§ 91.227 Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) Out equipment performance requirements.
§§ 91.228-91.299 [Reserved]
Subpart D — Special Flight Operations
§ 91.301 [Reserved]
§ 91.303 Aerobatic flight.
§ 91.305 Flight test areas.
§ 91.307 Parachutes and parachuting.
§ 91.309 Towing: Gliders and unpowered ultralight vehicles.
§ 91.311 Towing: Other than under §91.309.
§ 91.313 Restricted category civil aircraft: Operating limitations.
§ 91.315 Limited category civil aircraft: Operating limitations.
§ 91.317 Provisionally certificated civil aircraft: Operating limitations.
§ 91.319 Aircraft having experimental certificates: Operating limitations.
§ 91.321 Carriage of candidates in elections.
§ 91.323 Increased maximum certificated weights for certain airplanes operated in Alaska.
§ 91.325 Primary category aircraft: Operating limitations.
§ 91.327 Aircraft having a special airworthiness certificate in the light-sport category: Operating limitations.
§§ 91.328-91.399 [Reserved]
Subpart E — Maintenance, Preventive Maintenance, and Alterations
§ 91.401 Applicability.
§ 91.403 General.
§ 91.405 Maintenance required.
§ 91.407 Operation after maintenance, preventive maintenance, rebuilding, or alteration.
§ 91.409 Inspections.
§ 91.410 [Reserved]
§ 91.411 Altimeter system and altitude reporting equipment tests and inspections.
§ 91.413 ATC transponder tests and inspections.
§ 91.415 Changes to aircraft inspection programs.
§ 91.417 Maintenance records.
§ 91.419 Transfer of maintenance records.
§ 91.421 Rebuilt engine maintenance records.
§§ 91.423-91.499 [Reserved]
Subpart F — Large and Turbine-Powered Multiengine Airplanes and Fractional Ownership Program Aircraft
§ 91.501 Applicability.
§ 91.503 Flying equipment and operating information.
§ 91.505 Familiarity with operating limitations and emergency equipment.
§ 91.507 Equipment requirements: Over-the-top or night VFR operations.
§ 91.509 Survival equipment for overwater operations.
§ 91.511 Communication and navigation equipment for overwater operations.
§ 91.513 Emergency equipment.
§ 91.515 Flight altitude rules.
§ 91.517 Passenger information.
§ 91.519 Passenger briefing.
§ 91.521 Shoulder harness.
§ 91.523 Carry-on baggage.
§ 91.525 Carriage of cargo.
§ 91.527 Operating in icing conditions.
§ 91.529 Flight engineer requirements.
§ 91.531 Second in command requirements.
§ 91.533 Flight attendant requirements.
§ 91.535 Stowage of food, beverage, and passenger service equipment during aircraft movement on the surface, takeoff, and landing.
§§ 91.536-91.599 [Reserved]
Subpart G — Additional Equipment and Operating Requirements for Large and Transport Category Aircraft
§ 91.601 Applicability.
§ 91.603 Aural speed warning device.
§ 91.605 Transport category civil airplane weight limitations.
§ 91.607 Emergency exits for airplanes carrying passengers for hire.
§ 91.609 Flight data recorders and cockpit voice recorders.
§ 91.611 Authorization for ferry flight with one engine inoperative.
§ 91.613 Materials for compartment interiors.
§§ 91.615-91.699 [Reserved]
Subpart H — Foreign Aircraft Operations and Operations of U.S.-Registered Civil Aircraft Outside of the United States; and Rules Governing Persons on Board Such Aircraft
§ 91.701 Applicability.
§ 91.702 Persons on board.
§ 91.703 Operations of civil aircraft of U.S. registry outside of the United States.
§ 91.705 [Reserved]
§ 91.706 Operations within airspace designed as Reduced Vertical Separation Minimum Airspace.
§ 91.707 Flights between Mexico or Canada and the United States.
§ 91.709 Operations to Cuba.
§ 91.711 Special rules for foreign civil aircraft.
§ 91.713 Operation of civil aircraft of Cuban registry.
§ 91.715 Special flight authorizations for foreign civil aircraft.
§§ 91.717-91.799 [Reserved]
Subpart I — Operating Noise Limits
§ 91.801 Applicability: Relation to part 36.
§ 91.803 Part 125 operators: Designation of applicable regulations.
§ 91.805 Final compliance: Subsonic airplanes.
§ 91.815 Agricultural and fire fighting airplanes: Noise operating limitations.
§ 91.817 Civil aircraft sonic boom.
§ 91.819 Civil supersonic airplanes that do not comply with part 36.
§ 91.821 Civil supersonic airplanes: Noise limits.
§ 91.851 Definitions.
§ 91.853 Final compliance: Civil subsonic airplanes.
§ 91.855 Entry and nonaddition rule.
§ 91.857 Stage 2 operations outside of the 48 contiguous United States.
§ 91.858 Special flight authorizations for non-revenue Stage 2 operations.
§ 91.859 Modification to meet Stage 3, Stage 4, or Stage 5 noise levels.
§ 91.861 Base level.
§ 91.863 Transfers of Stage 2 airplanes with base level.
§ 91.865 Phased compliance for operators with base level.
§ 91.867 Phased compliance for new entrants.
§ 91.869 Carry-forward compliance.
§ 91.871 Waivers from interim compliance requirements.
§ 91.873 Waivers from final compliance.
§ 91.875 Annual progress reports.
§ 91.877 Annual reporting of Hawaiian operations.
§ 91.881 Final compliance: Civil subsonic jet airplanes weighing 75,000 pounds or less.
§ 91.883 Special flight authorizations for jet airplanes weighing 75,000 pounds or less.
§§ 91.807-91.813 [Reserved]
§§ 91.823-91.849 [Reserved]
§§ 91.879-91.880 [Reserved]
§§ 91.879-91.899 [Reserved]
§§ 91.884-91.899 [Reserved]
Subpart J — Waivers
§ 91.901 [Reserved]
§ 91.903 Policy and procedures.
§ 91.905 List of rules subject to waivers.
§§ 91.907-91.999 [Reserved]
Subpart K — Fractional Ownership Operations
§ 91.1001 Applicability.
§ 91.1002 Compliance date.
§ 91.1003 Management contract between owner and program manager.
§ 91.1005 Prohibitions and limitations.
§ 91.1007 Flights conducted under part 121 or part 135 of this chapter.
§ 91.1009 Clarification of operational control.
§ 91.1011 Operational control responsibilities and delegation.
§ 91.1013 Operational control briefing and acknowledgment.
§ 91.1014 Issuing or denying management specifications.
§ 91.1015 Management specifications.
§ 91.1017 Amending program manager's management specifications.
§ 91.1019 Conducting tests and inspections.
§ 91.1021 Internal safety reporting and incident/accident response.
§ 91.1023 Program operating manual requirements.
§ 91.1025 Program operating manual contents.
§ 91.1027 Recordkeeping.
§ 91.1029 Flight scheduling and locating requirements.
§ 91.1031 Pilot in command or second in command: Designation required.
§ 91.1033 Operating information required.
§ 91.1035 Passenger awareness.
§ 91.1037 Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered; Limitations; Destination and alternate airports.
§ 91.1039 IFR takeoff, approach and landing minimums.
§ 91.1041 Aircraft proving and validation tests.
§ 91.1043 [Reserved]
§ 91.1045 Additional equipment requirements.
§ 91.1047 Drug and alcohol misuse education program.
§ 91.1049 Personnel.
§ 91.1050 Employment of former FAA employees.
§ 91.1051 Pilot safety background check.
§ 91.1053 Crewmember experience.
§ 91.1055 Pilot operating limitations and pairing requirement.
§ 91.1057 Flight, duty and rest time requirements: All crewmembers.
§ 91.1059 Flight time limitations and rest requirements: One or two pilot crews.
§ 91.1061 Augmented flight crews.
§ 91.1062 Duty periods and rest requirements: Flight attendants.
§ 91.1063 Testing and training: Applicability and terms used.
§ 91.1065 Initial and recurrent pilot testing requirements.
§ 91.1067 Initial and recurrent flight attendant crewmember testing requirements.
§ 91.1069 Flight crew: Instrument proficiency check requirements.
§ 91.1071 Crewmember: Tests and checks, grace provisions, training to accepted standards.
§ 91.1073 Training program: General.
§ 91.1075 Training program: Special rules.
§ 91.1077 Training program and revision: Initial and final approval.
§ 91.1079 Training program: Curriculum.
§ 91.1081 Crewmember training requirements.
§ 91.1083 Crewmember emergency training.
§ 91.1085 Hazardous materials recognition training.
§ 91.1087 Approval of aircraft simulators and other training devices.
§ 91.1089 Qualifications: Check pilots (aircraft) and check pilots (simulator).
§ 91.1091 Qualifications: Flight instructors (aircraft) and flight instructors (simulator).
§ 91.1093 Initial and transition training and checking: Check pilots (aircraft), check pilots (simulator).
§ 91.1095 Initial and transition training and checking: Flight instructors (aircraft), flight instructors (simulator).
§ 91.1097 Pilot and flight attendant crewmember training programs.
§ 91.1099 Crewmember initial and recurrent training requirements.
§ 91.1101 Pilots: Initial, transition, and upgrade ground training.
§ 91.1103 Pilots: Initial, transition, upgrade, requalification, and differences flight training.
§ 91.1105 Flight attendants: Initial and transition ground training.
§ 91.1107 Recurrent training.
§ 91.1109 Aircraft maintenance: Inspection program.
§ 91.1111 Maintenance training.
§ 91.1113 Maintenance recordkeeping.
§ 91.1115 Inoperable instruments and equipment.
§ 91.1411 Continuous airworthiness maintenance program use by fractional ownership program manager.
§ 91.1413 CAMP: Responsibility for airworthiness.
§ 91.1415 CAMP: Mechanical reliability reports.
§ 91.1417 CAMP: Mechanical interruption summary report.
§ 91.1423 CAMP: Maintenance organization.
§ 91.1425 CAMP: Maintenance, preventive maintenance, and alteration programs.
§ 91.1427 CAMP: Manual requirements.
§ 91.1429 CAMP: Required inspection personnel.
§ 91.1431 CAMP: Continuing analysis and surveillance.
§ 91.1433 CAMP: Maintenance and preventive maintenance training program.
§ 91.1435 CAMP: Certificate requirements.
§ 91.1437 CAMP: Authority to perform and approve maintenance.
§ 91.1439 CAMP: Maintenance recording requirements.
§ 91.1441 CAMP: Transfer of maintenance records.
§ 91.1443 CAMP: Airworthiness release or aircraft maintenance log entry.
Subpart L — Continued Airworthiness and Safety Improvements
§ 91.1501 Purpose and definition.
§ 91.1503 [Reserved]
§ 91.1505 Repairs assessment for pressurized fuselages.
§ 91.1507 Fuel tank system inspection program.
Subpart M — Special Federal Aviation Regulations
§ 91.1603 Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 112—Prohibition Against Certain Flights in the Tripoli (HLLL) Flight Information Region (FIR).
§ 91.1605 Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 77—Prohibition Against Certain Flights in the Baghdad Flight Information Region (FIR) (ORBB).
§ 91.1607 Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 113—Prohibition Against Certain Flights in the Simferopol Flight Information Region (FIR) (UKFV) and the Dnipropetrovsk Flight Information Region (FIR) (UKDV).
§ 91.1609 Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 114—Prohibition Against Certain Flights in the Damascus Flight Information Region (FIR) (OSTT).
§ 91.1611 Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 115—Prohibition Against Certain Flights in Specified Areas of the Sanaa (OYSC) Flight Information Region (FIR).
§ 91.1613 Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 107—Prohibition Against Certain Flights in the Territory and Airspace of Somalia.
§ 91.1615 Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 79—Prohibition Against Certain Flights in the Pyongyang Flight Information Region (FIR) (ZKKP).
Subpart N—Mitsubishi MU-2B Series Special Training, Experience, and Operating Requirements
§ 91.1701 Applicability.
§ 91.1703 Compliance and eligibility.
§ 91.1705 Required pilot training.
§ 91.1707 Training program hours.
§ 91.1709 Training program approval.
§ 91.1711 Aeronautical experience.
§ 91.1713 Instruction, checking, and evaluation.
§ 91.1715 Currency requirements and flight review.
§ 91.1717 Operating requirements.
§ 91.1719 Credit for prior training.
§ 91.1721 Incorporation by reference.
Appendix A to Part 91—Category II Operations: Manual, Instruments, Equipment, and Maintenance
Appendix B to Part 91—Authorizations To Exceed Mach 1 (§91.817)
Appendix C to Part 91—Operations in the North Atlantic (NAT) Minimum Navigation Performance Specifications (MNPS) Airspace
Appendix D to Part 91—Airports/Locations: Special Operating Restrictions
Appendix E to Part 91—Airplane Flight Recorder Specifications
Appendix F to Part 91—Helicopter Flight Recorder Specifications
Appendix G to Part 91—Operations in Reduced Vertical Separation Minimum (RVSM) Airspace
Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 50-2—Special Flight Rules in the Vicinity of the Grand Canyon National Park, AZ
Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 60—Air Traffic Control System Emergency Operation
Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 77—Prohibition Against Certain Flights Within the Territory and Airspace of Iraq
Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 79—Prohibition Against Certain Flights Within the Flight Information Region (FIR) of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK)
Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 87—Prohibition Against Certain Flights Within the Territory and Airspace of Ethiopia
Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 97—Special Operating Rules for the Conduct of Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) Area Navigation (RNAV) Operations using Global Positioning Systems (GPS) in Alaska
Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 104—Prohibition Against Certain Flights by Syrian Air Carriers to the United States
Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 107—Prohibition Against Certain Flights Within the Territory and Airspace of Somalia
Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 108—Mitsubishi MU-2B Series Special Training, Experience, and Operating Requirements

Authority

49 U.S.C. 106(g), 1155, 40103, 40113, 40120, 44101, 44111, 44701, 44704, 44709, 44711, 44712, 44715, 44716, 44717, 44722, 46306, 46315, 46316, 46504, 46506–46507, 47122, 47508, 47528–47531, articles 12 and 29 of the Convention on International Civil Aviation (61 Stat. 1180).